ABC news-fetus in fetus comes about when very early in the twin pregnancy, one fetus wraps around and envelop the other. the dominate fetus then grows and the fetus that would have been his twin lives on inside during the pregnancy; feeding off his host like a parasite. Usually both twins die before birth. but sometime the host twin survive.
A fetus in fetu can be considered alive, but only in the sense that its component tissues have not yet died or been eliminated. Thus, the life of a fetus in fetu is akin to that of a tumor in that its cells remain viable by way of normal metabolic activity. However, without the gestational conditions in utero with the amnion and placenta, a fetus in fetu can develop into, at best, an especially well differentiated teratoma; or, at worst, a high-grade metastatic teratocarcinoma. In terms of physical maturation, its organs have a working blood supply from the host, but all cases of fetus in fetu present critical defects, such as no functional brain, heart, lungs,gastrointestinal tract, or urinary tract. Accordingly, while a fetus in fetu can share select morphological features with a normal fetus, it has no prospect of any life outside of the host twin. Moreover, it poses clear threats to the life of the host twin on whom its own life dependsFetus in fetu may be a very highly differentiated form of dermoid cyst, itself a highly differentiated form of mature teratoma.Fetus in fetu may be a parasitic twin fetus growing within its host twin. Very early in a monozygotic twin pregnancy, in which both fetuses share a common placenta, one fetus wraps around and envelops the other. The enveloped twin becomes a parasite, in that its survival depends on the survival of its host twin, by drawing on the host twin’s blood supply. The parasitic twin is anencephalic (without a brain) and lacks some internal organs, and as such is almost always unable to survive on its own. As the normal twin has to “feed” the enveloped twin from the nutrients received over a single umbilical cord, it usually dies before birth Cases of fetus in fetu sometimes attract worldwide media attention. These cases are a small minority of the known cases and rarely overlap with cases reported in the medical literature, but they are widely accessible. * Alamjan Nematilaev was the surviving host of a fetus in fetu. In 2003, aged 7, his school physician in Kazakhstan referred him to hospital after movements were detected in the boy’s enlarged abdomen. An operation intended to remove a cyst uncovered the fetus of Alamjan’s identical twin brother, which had lived as parasitic growth inside the boy throughout his entire life. The fetus was comparatively highly developed, with hair, arms, fingers, nails, legs, toes, genitals, a head, and a vague approximation of a face. * In June 1999, the case of Sanju Bhagat a man from Nagpur, India attracted attention for the length of time (36 years) he had carried his parasitic “twin” inside his body, and the size of the growth. As Bhagat had no placenta, the growth had connected directly to his blood supply.* In March 2006, Doctors in Pakistan removed two fetuses from inside a two-month-old baby girl. * In November 2006, a Chilean boy in Santiago was diagnosed with fetus in fetu shortly before birth.* In August 2007, two month old Eljie Millapes from Baguio, the Philippines, was diagnosed with fetus in fetu. The parents of Millapes were alarmed by the abnormal growth of the abdomen of their baby. Doctors later discovered that she was suffering from fetus in fetu.* In January 2008, a two-month-old baby in Medan, Indonesia named Afiah Syafina was diagnosed with a tumor in her abdomen. An operation was done at January 19, 2008 which revealed the suspected tumor to actually be a fetus. * In May 2008, a two-inch (5 cm) embryo was removed from the belly of a 9-year-old girl at Larissa General Hospital in Greece after she was diagnosed with a tumor on the right side of her belly. The embryo was a fetus with a head, hair and eyes, but no brain or umbilical cord.* In October, 2008, a doctor in the USA removed a brain tumor that consisted of a foot and other body parts. This may have been a case of fetus in fetu or it may have been a teratoma.* In September 2009, one year old Kang Mengru from China was “pregnant” with her own twin. After 10 hours of complex surgery to remove the fetus, Kang’s family was told she could return home at the end of the month having made a full recovery
There are different types of doctors and what they do depends on their field of specialty. If you are a budding doctor and want to know more about the career options related to types of doctors and what they do, then the following article will prove to be a useful read…
Doctor, a profession that elicits respect and high esteem from people from all walks of life. The profession of saving lives, helping new life come into the world and giving new hope to the ill and distraught, is considered to be next to godliness. There are different types of doctors and what they do is to help make life better. All of us have at least once in our lives visited a doctor and the doctor has helped us in some way or the other. Many aspire to become a doctor to help the sick get rid of their maladies. Medicine is one of the most sought after professions in the world and is one of the highest paying jobs in the world. Wouldn’t it feel wonderful to go home with the feeling of satisfaction that you just helped saved a life? If you too are medically inclined and wish to do your bit for society and also have a stable financial future, then becoming a doctor is the way to go! The following list of different types of doctors and what they do will help you learn more about this highly noble medical job.
Different Types of Doctors and What They Do
The world is Mother Nature’s marvel that is blessed with different wonders of the natural world like the human body system. But, with every blessing comes some kind of curse and this curse that plagues the living world is diseases. There are different kinds of diseases and disorders that are either due to microorganisms, parasites, non-functioning of different organs in the body, biochemical imbalances, genetic or hereditary problems, etc. Many times, people suffer from different kinds of accidents natural and man-made, gunshots, stabbing wounds, burns, and many other innovative types of grievous injuries. These different medical problems are taken care of by different types of doctors and what they do, according to their field of specialization. There are hundreds of examples around the world, where doctors have been able to pull men out of the jaws of death with their medical expertise. If you too want to face different medical challenges, then the following list of different types of doctors and what they do, will help you find a foothold in the medical world.
Audiologists: These doctors help patients with different ear problems and help children who are either deaf or mute to learn to communicate.
Allergist: These doctors help in treating different kinds of allergies and immune system disorders like hay fever, asthma, etc.
Andrologists: The andrologist helps in diagnosing and treating disorders related to the male reproductive system.
Anesthesiologists: They study and administer anesthesia and anesthetic medicines that help in facilitating treatment, diagnosis of medical conditions and complete minor and major surgeries without the patient having to feel more than the prick of the anesthetic needle.
Cardiologist: These are doctors of the heart that diagnose and treat heart diseases and cardiovascular diseases.
Dentist: Perhaps one of the most feared doctors of all is the dentist due to their tooth extraction habits! These doctors are concerned with dental health, teeth and dental problems like cavities and bleeding gums. They treat gum diseases, straighten teeth, carry out root canals, etc.
Dermatologists: A dermatologist studies the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases, as well as its appendages (nails, hair, sweat glands) and treats the related ailments.
Endocrinologists: A doctor who studies disorders of the endocrine system and their glands, like thyroid problems and other such hormonal imbalances and the specific secretions of hormones is what entails an endocrinologist job description.
Epidemiologists: Epidemiologist are the doctors who are also known as ‘disease detectives’. They carry out study of diseases and come up with ways of prevention of diseases through vaccinations, etc.
Family Practician: These are your friendly neighborhood doctors who are basically general physicians, and treat patients of all ages & medical non-emergency conditions usually in a clinic.
Gastroenterologists: A doctor that studies diseases of digestive system and gives treatment related to the gasteroenterlogy.
Gynecologists: The doctor who studies and treats diseases of the female reproductive system.
Hematologists: A hematologist studies blood and its diseases.
Hepatologists: Hepatologists study and treat diseases of the liver.
Immunologists: The doctor who studies all aspects of the immune system in all organisms and gives treatment to diseases of the immune system.
Infectious Disease Specialists: The doctors who study & treat diseases that are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and are usually based within the hospital. These doctors are involved in a lot of research work.
Internal Medicine Specialists: These doctors provide diagnosis, management and nonsurgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases and are usually found working in hospitals as intensivists.
Internists: These doctors focus on adult medicine and have completed a special study related to the prevention and treatment of adult diseases.
Medical Geneticist: A medical geneticist is the doctor that carries out studies, tests, treatments and counseling patients with genetic diseases.
Microbiologists: A microbiologist studies causes, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.
Neonatologist: The neonatologist is the doctor that provides medical care to premature and critically ill newborn babies.
Nephrologist: The doctor who treats kidney diseases and problems.
Neurologist: These are doctors who treat one of the most delicate and important organs of the body, the brain. They treat conditions like seizures, strokes, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, etc.
Neurosurgeons: These are surgeons who treat central and peripheral nervous system diseases that can be cured or controlled to some extent with mechanical intervention.
Obstetrician: This is a part of gynecology and the doctors are experts with childbirth, C-sections, gynecological surgeries like hysterectomy, surgical removal of ovarian tumors, examination of the pelvic region, PAP smears, prenatal care, etc.
Oncologist: An oncologist job description entails treating cancer patients.
Ophthalmologist: The doctor that takes care of eyes and treats various eye problems and performs different eye surgeries.
Orthopedic Surgeons: The doctor who is concerned with the skeletal system of the human body, that is, bones. These doctors make no bones about broken, fractured or arthritis struck bones!
ENT specialists: An ENT specialist treats the Ear, the Nose and the Throat, as well as to some extent some ailments of the head and the neck. This field is also known as otolaryngology.
Perinatologist: The doctor who is an expert in caring and treating high risk pregnancies.
Paleopathologist: These doctors are into the study of ancient diseases.
Parasitologist: The study of parasites, their biology and pathology, as well as the parasitic diseases caused by them is carried out by a parasitologist.
Pathologists: The study of abnormalities in living organisms, diagnosing diseases and conditions from tissue samples like blood or biopsy samples. They also work as medical examiners & carry out autopsies to determine the cause of death. These doctors usually do not come in contact with the patients directly as their work is mostly lab work. They are therefore called as a ‘doctor’s doctor’ as they speak to doctors of the patients rather than the patient himself. There are many doctors who specialize in forensic pathology and help the police and FBI solve crimes.
Pediatricians: A pediatrician is the doctor who studies and treats medical problems of infants, children, and adolescents.
Physiologists: A physiologist is a life science doctor who specializes in physiology.
Physiatrist: The doctor whose specialty is medicine and rehabilitation.
Plastic Surgeon: A plastic surgeon is the doctor who can literally change the life and look of a patient. He performs cosmetic surgery to repair skin and structural problems that may alter the personality of the patient for good.
Podiatrists: The doctor who studies and treats disorders of the foot and ankle.
Psychiatrists: These doctors specialize in psychiatry, that is, a branch of medicine concerned with the study, diagnoses and treatment of mental illness and behavioral disorders.
Pulmonologist: The doctor who diagnoses and treats lung conditions and treatments and even manages critical care patients admitted in the ICU and those that are on ventilator support.
Radiologists: The study of medical use of X-rays or other imaging technologies for diagnoses and treatment of disease is carried out by an radiologist.
Rheumatologsists: These doctors treat allergic conditions & autoimmune disorders.
Surgeons: A surgeon performs operations, related to different sub-specialties of medicine like general surgery, neurosurgery, cardiovascular, cardiothoracic surgery, ENT, maxillo-facial surgery, plastic surgery, oral surgery, transplant surgery, urology, etc.
Urologists: The urologist is a doctor who studies the urinary system and treats urinary tract infections.
Emergency Doctors: Emergency doctors are those who offer their services in the emergency room (ER) and are on call 24/7. They treat various emergency cases that vary from poisoning, broken bones, burns, heart attack, and anything and everything that can be termed as a medical emergency.
Veterinarian: Although, all the above fields are concerned with human treatment, the veterinarian is also a type of doctor and what they do is treat animals. They take care of different diseases of the animal world. There are different kinds of doctors within the field of animal medicine and like human doctors, the veterinarian too has his field of expertise in case of animal problems.
This was some medical career information related to different types of doctors and what they do. There are over 50 to 60 specialties of medicine and each specialty with different types of doctors and their salaries. You need to understand your area of interest and then choose your line of specialty as a career. I hope this article on different types of doctors and what they do has helped you find your field of interest.
Your tongue has a unique print similar to your fingerprints.
Your brain is more active at night than during the day.
If you squeezed out all of the bacteria from your intestines, you could almost fill up a coffee mug.
Undertakers report that human bodies do not deteriorate as quickly as they used to. The reason, they believe, is that the modern diet contains so many preservatives that these chemicals tend to prevent the body from decomposition too rapidly after death.
Facial hair grows faster than any other hair on the human body, which explains the 5 o clock shadow that men get.
The storage capacity of human brain exceeds 4 Terabytes.
The acid in your stomach, that which helps digest your food, is strong enough to dissolve razor blades! Don’t try swallowing metal objects to prove this, but hydrochloric acid (found in the stomach) can dissolve a variety of metals.
Women’s hearts beat faster than men’s due to having a smaller area to pump blood to.
Your stomach lining replaces itself every three to four days. If it did not do this your stomach would digest itself. If you have ever had a stomach ulcer you will know how painful this is.
A scientist discovered this weird medical fact – the left lung is smaller than the right lung to make room for the heart.
During your lifetime you will produce enough saliva to full up two swimming pools.
Every time you sneeze it reaches speeds of over 100mph, which is why people struggle to keep their eyes open when they sneeze.
This random medical fact is one for the ladies – women have a better sense of smell than men and continue to have a better sense of smell throughout their lives.
Everyone has a unique smell, except for identical twins.
The attachment of the human skin to muscles is what causes dimples.
In 1972, a group of scientists reported that you could cure the common cold by freezing the big toe.
The number one cause of blindness in the United States is diabetes.
People who laugh a lot are much healthier than those who don’t. Dr. Lee Berk at the Loma Linda School of Public Health in California found that laughing lowers levels of stress hormones, and strengthens the immune system. Six-year-olds have it best – they laugh an average of 300 times a day. Adults only laugh 15 to 100 times a day.
In 1815 French chemist Michael Eugene Chevreul realized the first link between diabetes and sugar metabolism when he discovered that the urine of a diabetic was identical to grape sugar.
The first Band-Aid Brand Adhesive Bandages were three inches wide and eighteen inches long. You made your own bandage by cutting off as much as you needed.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 18 million courses of antibiotics are prescribed for the common cold in the United States per year. Research shows that colds are caused by viruses. 50 million unnecessary antibiotics are prescribed for viral respiratory infections.
It takes an interaction of 72 different muscles to produce human speech.
The first known heart medicine was discovered in an English garden. In 1799, physician John Ferriar noted the effect of dried leaves of the common plant, digitalis purpurea, on heart action. Still used in heart medications, digitalis slows the pulse and increases the force of heart contractions and the amount of blood pumped per heartbeat.
Coca-Cola contained Coca (whose active ingredient is cocaine) from 1885 to 1903.
Ketchup was sold in the 1830s as medicine.